This relative independence notwithstanding, the government of Hong Kong aligned its education system with that of mainland China and introduced major reforms after the handover of Hong Kong. Chinese children all get a primary and middle school public education. Compulsory basic education generally comprises six years of elementary and three years of lower-secondary education and is free of charge at public schools. However, great progress has been made since the 1990s, especially after the handover of Macau to China. Transnational education (TNE), referred to as Sino-foreign cooperative education in China, was introduced in the country in the 1990s and has since grown exponentially. Coronavirus tests can be hard to come by. China is by far the largest sending country of international students; numbers are on an upward trajectory and rose from 87,895 in 2013/14 to 106,530 in 2017/18, as per U.K. statistics. There are two types of schools at the senior secondary level: general academic high schools (gaozhong) and vocational high schools (zhongzhuan). The reform introduces elective subjects and eliminates the practice of streaming since students can now elect subjects from both streams. Consider that 87 percent of high school college counselors in China surveyed by Amherst College in 2019 stated that the U.S. government’s “unpredictable policies toward Chinese students” are the most important factor for Chinese students and parents. Vocational high schools in China have different names, such as specialized secondary school or skilled worker school, but they are all designed to train mid-level technicians. Adults typically must sit for the National Adult College Entrance Examination to be admitted into formal degree programs. Vocational schools were introduced in China in the 1960s, and enrollments grew tremendously in the previous century. The actual major is generally more specialized. There are currently few signs that student flows to Australia will recede—the number of inbound Chinese students grew by 4 percent between August 2018 and August 2019. The A Level is the most widespread curriculum with a market share of 40 percent; it is followed by the AP (26 percent) and IB (14 percent). Chinese authorities favor joint curriculum development with the Chinese partner and generally prefer reputable foreign institutions that are well-represented in international university rankings. As noted, senior secondary teachers must complete a four-year benke program at a normal university. … The People’s Republic of China is administratively divided into 23 provinces, four municipalities that have the same standing as provinces (Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, and Chongqing), five autonomous regions (including Tibet and Xinjiang), and two specially administered regions (Hong Kong and Macau). In semester systems, the last two weeks are usually reserved for examinations. China still faces the possibility of fresh outbreaks, epidemiologists say, especially in the fall and winter months. Since CCP officials are especially concerned about Western values being taught in basic education—at an age when children are more impressionable—it has banned for-profit schools in basic education in order to “bar foreign investment in private schools.” In addition, all private schools in basic education are now required to teach the national curriculum and prepare pupils for the zhongkao exams. Ultimately, they are seeking to create a blend of the Eastern and Western education system, this has seen a rise for international schools opening up across China in pursuit of this goal. Renamed OUC in 2012, the university oversees a vast network of regional open distance education universities throughout the country. In the United States, where the pandemic is still raging, discussions about how and when to resume in-person classes have been fraught. For example, a student may complete an ELT course and continue to enroll in a bachelor’s degree program and both enrollments are counted for the same year. Students accumulate a series of completion certificates after each exam until they meet the requirements for graduation, which may also entail writing a thesis. China’s education system is deeply unfair. Admission to two-certificate programs is governed by entrance examinations and they require full-time study, as well as a thesis (for academic but not for professional programs). Some universities may allow student to sit for make-up exams or permit students with insufficient credits to graduate with a “downgraded” junior college zhuanke qualification. But under the 3+3 model, students now can freely choose three electives from chemistry, biology, physics, geography, politics, and history. The HEEC then dispatches a team of evaluators to conduct on-site inspections, review university documents, and interview administrators, faculty, and students. It also gathers statistical data on HEIs and maintains a database on academic institutions approved to offer benke and zhuanke programs. In addition, these schools also provide a pathway to higher education. Consider that in 2017, internationally educated graduates earned on average only USD$71 more per month than domestic graduates and may have difficulty finding jobs because of stiff competition and weak social networks. Australia’s position as the third most popular international study destination worldwide is to a large extent owed to the influx of Chinese students. The quality of these institutions is highly variable, observers say, and they are often not on par with public HEIs. Independent labor unions are banned and activism is discouraged, making it difficult for the country’s more than 12 million teachers to organize. The curricula are applied and practical in nature, but also include general academic foundation subjects, which make up a third of the curriculum. Subscribe to WENR, and discover other tools and publications. Given the overdependence of many Western universities on tuition fees paid by Chinese students, the prominent international education scholar Philip G. Altbach recently warned of a coming “China crisis” in global higher education amid domestic transformations in China and rising political tensions between China and Western countries. Each class averages 35 students. Fully one quarter of international students in Canada now come from China, most of them clustered in cities like Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal. Given their narrow focus on research, students at these schools are almost exclusively graduate students, but the University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has also offered undergraduate programs since 2014. However, admission rates at top institutions like the C9 group of universities—China’s equivalent of the Ivy League—are minuscule at best. While the central government has warned school officials to avoid becoming “paralyzed or lax,” it is unclear whether the measures are sustainable. Education has always been valued by the Chinese, and it is considered one of the foundations of public order and civilized life. Consider that in the mid-1980s fewer than two million students sat for the gaokao, and that the overall admissions rate was only 23 percent in 1990. Education is something entirely different. International schools traditionally catered exclusively to expats. Although not officially mandated, the CET is a prerequisite for graduation at many universities. The MOE in November 2019 issued a directive to end these practices and called upon universities to tighten graduation requirements. According to a recent report by Sina Education and the Chinese study abroad agency Jinjilie Study, fully 23 percent of China’s international students studied at the upper-secondary level in 2017. In fact, after averaging 19 percent annually over the past decades, annual growth rates in outbound student flows, while still high, have in recent years already fallen by several percentage points. The final credential is called the Master of Medicine and is now required of all clinical practitioners. It provides verification services for academic degrees at all levels (bachelor, master, and doctoral degrees). Bachelor’s degree programs in Hong Kong were three, or in some cases, four or five years in length. The Ministry of Education’s guidelines call for temperatures to be taken at least three times a day and reported to school officials. All providers, including universities in Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan must partner with a Chinese institution if they want to run programs accessible in mainland China. While the provision of school education remains largely in private hands—67 out of 77 schools in Macau are privately owned—the government ensures consistency by requiring that government-subsidized schools in the free education system follow mandatory curriculum guidelines. Forty percent of Chinese students are enrolled in undergraduate programs, 36 percent in graduate programs, and close to 5 percent in non-degree programs; 19 percent pursue Optional Practical Training. Although China’s modern universities were not founded before the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the history of formal education in China predates the establishment of Western-style educational institutions by centuries. Sliding into the lower third of marks means, at a minimum, losing a year and going through the whole horrible experience of cramming all over again. In 2019, the government then put forward a comprehensive National Vocational Education Reform Implementation Plan. Western critics contend, however, that generous funding by itself is not enough to elevate Chinese HEIs, and that greater academic freedoms and university autonomy will be needed to establish true world-class universities in the country. Under the current evaluation scheme, HEIs are assessed in three categories: pass, deferred pass, and not passed. These one-certificate programs are considered “equivalency degrees” (tongdeng xuelixuewei), officially on par with regular degrees. But so far, the measures appear to be effective, with no outbreaks or school closures reported. 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